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Flood Types and Their Promoting Factors

Flooding is a typical part of the water cycle, and they are also a devastating cause of death and destruction. It is possible to lessen the harm caused by flooding in a variety of ways. Although flooding can happen in any place, it tends to occur in areas with low elevation and is perhaps predicted.

Each flood can do a range of damage to your home, and the severity of the damage will vary on the type of flood you’re facing. Being aware of the type of flood that could cause harm to your home is essential to preparing for the eventuality and making sure that you and your family can be safe as quickly as possible during an emergency.

Understanding Flood Types

Since floods can be just several inches of water or several feet, their attributes vary significantly. They can also swiftly move while slowly growing in size. The different flood types and the reasons that contributed to their existence will be tackled in this article.

1. Flash Flood

Flash floods are caused when torrential rains fall rapidly. If the water goes deep into the dried streambed, flash floods could be miles away from where the rain fell. In minutes, a dry stream channel can become a raging river. Flash floods can strike anyplace, but they’re often seen in mountainous regions and tiny drainage basins. 

Lack of vegetation or clay-rich soils within the desert southwest is also a factor. These fields with dense vegetation tend to be less likely to be flooded since plants slow the water flow as it moves across the land.

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2. Coastal Flood

The floods along the coastline can be divided into two main categories: surge flooding and the sea’s rise flood. These floods happen in places near open bodies of water. Flooding in coastal areas is caused by tidal flow, barometric pressure, and storms. 

Storm surge is the water pushed to shore by the winds of storms. It can be mild or extreme, depending on how strong the storm is and how fast it’s moving, how large it is, the form of the land alongshore and offshore, and the number of people living along the coastline.

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3. River Flood

The type of flood occurs when the river’s banks are flooded by rising water. Any stream or river could be flooded. Extreme rainfall from tropical storms, storms that last for a long time, snowmelt, and ice jams create river flooding. Pulses of melting snow or rain cause the water to rise above river banks and flood areas around them. 

While floods caused by rivers tend to be predetermined, a dam or the dike’s failure can cause devastating property damage. But most river floods are due to storms that offer enough warning for people within the vicinity to leave safely.

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4. Sewage Flood

Flooding of sewage facilities or treatment facilities results from when they’re overwhelmed by extreme rainfall, leading to the breakdown and release of wastewater that is not treated into nearby bodies of water. Sewage floods are the worst since sewage flows out of drains, pipes, sinks, toilets, or showers. Infection, diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and other ailments are common occurrences due to contaminated floodwater. These floods are the most dangerous.

5. Surface Water Flooding

Surface water, also referred to as pluvial water flooding, is one of the types of flooding that occurs mainly due to heavy rainfall. Runoff from hillsides that cannot absorb the water either through poor soil or impermeable surfaces might cause it. This water eventually builds up and causes flooding in low-lying regions. 

It may also be caused by drainage overflows, which happen when the drainage system cannot cope with the heavy rain because it isn’t large enough or hasn’t been adequately maintained, which causes it to get blocked and stop working.

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